Adding an item to a stack is called pushing. Removing an item from a stack is called popping. (2) In networking, short for protocol stack . (3) In Apple Computer 's HyperCard software system , a stack is a collection of cards .
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Malicious parties may attempt a stack smashing attack that takes advantage of this type of implementation by providing oversized data input to a program that does not check the length of input. Such a program may copy the data in its entirety to a location on the stack, and in so doing it may change the return addresses for procedures that have called it. An attacker can experiment to find a specific type of data that can be provided to such a program such that the return address of the current procedure is reset to point to an area within the stack itself (and within the data provided by the attacker), which in turn contains instructions that carry out unauthorized operations.