Functions of sugar . Sugar is not considered an essential ingredient in bread baking. This is because flour contains a small amount of natural sugars and some starch is converted to sugar during the fermentation process. It does have many important of the added sugar is converted to carbon dioxide and alcohol by the yeast enzymes. It provides necessary sweetness, helps to produce a golden brown color of the crust, improves the textureof the crumb, helps to retain moisture in the crumb and adds to the nutritional value of the bread. High percentage of sugar as used in sweet doughs and Danish pastry doughs retard yeast is the reason why when increasing the percentage of sugar in doughs, the percentage of yeast must be increased by the same proportion.
Low temperature (refrigeration and freezing) : Most organisms grow very little or not at all at 0 o C. Perishable foods are stored at low temperatues to slow rate of growth and consequent spoilage (. milk). Low temperatures are not bactericidal. Psychrotrophs, rather than true psychrophiles, are the usual cause of food spoilage in refrigerated foods. Although a few microbes will grow in supercooled solutions as low as minus 20 o C, most foods are preserved against microbial growth in the household freezer.
However, artificial colours like tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, erythrosine, amaranth and Brilliant Blue FCF have question marks hanging over them and have been linked to food sensitivity reactions. Tartrazine, once a common yellow colouring, has been extensively investigated for its ability to induce hives and asthma in aspirin-sensitive asthmatics. And they were used to test children's bad behaviour in the Southampton Study (more below). Because of these problems artificial colours cannot be added freely. Food regulations set limits on what type of foods they can be added to and at what levels. Here's my list of the 13 problem colours with their additive code number: