Testosterone Propionate Many consider propionate to be the mildest testosterone ester, and the preferred form for the dieting/cutting phases of training. Some will go so far as to say that propionate will harden the physique, while giving the user less water and fat retention than one typically expects to see with a testosterone.
During a typical cycle one will see action that is consistent with a testosterone. Users sensitive to gynecomastia and water retention may therefore need to add an anti-estrogen like Arimidex, Femara or Aromasin. Those particularly troubled by gynecomastia may find that a combination of Nolvadex and Proviron works especially well at preventing/halting this occurrence.
Carbon-13 NMR and radiotracer studies were used to determine the precursor to methylmalonate and to study the metabolism of propionate in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. [3,4,5-13C3]Valine labeled carbons 3, 4, and 26 of 3-methylpentacosane, indicating that valine was metabolized via propionyl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA and served as the methyl branch unit precursor. Potassium [2-13C]propionate labeled the odd-numbered carbons of hydrocarbons and potassium [3-13C]propionate labeled the even-numbered carbons of hydrocarbons in this insect. This labeling pattern indicates that propionate is metabolized to acetate, with carbon-2 of propionate becoming the methyl carbon of acetate and carbon-3 of propionate becoming the carboxyl carbon of acetate. In vivo studies in which products were separated by HPLC showed that [2-14C]propionate was readily metabolized to acetate. The radioactivity from sodium [1-14C]propionate was not incorporated into succinate nor into any other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, indicating that propionate was not metabolized via methylmalonate to succinate. Similarly, [1-14C]propionate did not label acetate. An experiment designed to determine the subcellular localization of the enzymes involved in converting propionate to acetate showed that they were located in the mitochondrial fraction. Data from both in vivo and in vitro studies as a function of time indicated that propionate was converted directly to acetate and did not first go through tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. These data demonstrate a novel pathway of propionate metabolism in insects.